Seizures not based on criminal activity

Typically, a person cannot be seized unless there is probable cause to believe the person is committing a crime or committed a crime.  However, the Supreme Court recognized that even in the absence of reasonable articulable suspicion or probable cause, a seizure for information-seeking purposes may be reasonable if “the gravity of the public concerns served by the seizure [and] the degree to which the seizure advances the public interest” outweigh “the severity of the interference with individual liberty.” Brown v. Texas, 443 U.S. 47, 50-51 (1979)

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